Posted BY: Alex Gordon

In The End of History and the Last Man (1992), Francis Fukuyama argues that the end of history means the end of an era of ideological confrontations, global revolutions, and wars. The Polish writer Stanislaw Lem has pointed out several times that the concept of any ultimate stability comes from an era of ideological and mythological thinking, which has always hoped for some “golden age” or other incarnation of paradise on earth.

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The book The End of History was a confident and decisive declaration that the ideological struggle was over, and the U.S., with its liberal values, had won this confrontation. “This triumph of the West, the triumph of the Western idea,” asserted Fukuyama, “is manifested above all in the complete exhaustion of the once viable alternatives to Western liberalism.

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